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Diabetes, also referred to as diabetes mellitus, presents a persistent metabolic challenge characterised by elevated levels of glucose in the bloodstream. This condition arises from a dysfunction in the pancreas, the organ responsible for producing the crucial hormone insulin. In diabetes, the pancreas either fails to generate adequate insulin or the body becomes resistant to its effects, leading to an inability to regulate blood glucose levels effectively.

The two primary forms of diabetes are Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes, often termed juvenile or childhood diabetes, predominantly manifests in younger individuals. On the other hand, Type 2 diabetes constitutes the vast majority, affecting individuals across a broad age spectrum, from their 20s to their 80s.

Upon diagnosis of diabetes, typically indicated by fasting glucose levels exceeding 126 mg/dl and/or post-meal levels surpassing 200 mg/dl, patients may undergo periodic health evaluations. These assessments commonly entail blood and urine tests to monitor various aspects of health. Management of diabetes encompasses lifestyle adjustments, oral medications, and sometimes injectable treatments. Prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels can lead to complications affecting the eyes, nerves, kidneys, lower extremities, and cardiovascular system.

Managing diabetes necessitates a lifelong commitment to maintaining a healthy lifestyle, adhering to medication regimens, and undergoing regular medical examinations to detect and address any emerging complications.